Bubonic Plague and Pseudotuberculosis

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Bubonic plague is a severe illness that can kill within two to three days without treatment. Infected individuals experience chills, fever, headache, weakness, diarrhea, and vomiting. Tenderness begins in the lymph nodes near the site of infection, and the inoculation site becomes edematous. An ulcer may develop, but they are rare. Untreated plague can cause death within two to three days, with a 40 and 60 percent fatality rate.

Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis is a bacterial pathogen that causes bubonic plague and fulminant disease in humans. The bacteria infects rodents and humans through infected fleas. The bacteria cause an intense fever and a life-threatening infection; typically, the disease is fatal within a week. The bacterium lives in sylvatic animal reservoirs and rodents. It is believed that this bacterium is the source of modern plague outbreaks.

The bacterium enters the human body through the dermis, the layer of skin below the epidermis. It then spreads throughout the body through the lymphatic system by biting infected fleas. The bacteria then disseminate from the dermis into the rest of the body, where they cause infection. In addition, the bacteria cause the body’s immune system to recruit neutrophils, which can prevent infection but can’t clear the infection.

The KIM strain of Y. pestis KIM (KIM) has a genome with 4,198 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the etiologic agent. It is similar to the Escherichia coli K-12 genome but shows remarkable genome rearrangements. The KIM strain contains an ORF that is more closely related to an Iha adhesin than CO92 and has an RSC back locus.

There are numerous ways to identify Y. pestis, including PCR and ELISA. However, these methods can be time-consuming and expensive. A suitable microbiological method relies on selective media.

Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia enterocolitic acid is a bacterium that can cause human illness. It is spread through unpasteurized milk, contaminated meat, and untreated water. It is also transmitted through human contact with infected animals. Therefore, washing your hands before and after touching food is best.

The two Yersinia strains closely resemble each other but have diverged over the years. In addition to sharing similar genetic characteristics, the two strains share some common virulence genes. Using PathoProT, researchers can compare virulence gene sequences of Yersinia isolates.

The bacteria that cause plague are gram-negative rods that survive in the intestines. They can be easily cultured and are relatively small. Their size range is 1.0-6.0 mm. They grow well on conventional cultivation soils. They are highly resistant to low glucose levels and can be cultured from feces.

Symptoms of yersiniosis begin three to seven days after exposure to the bacterium. They last one to three weeks but can sometimes extend longer. Symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea.

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a widespread pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and animals. It lives in soil, water, and rodent feces. It can survive in the digestive tract of many vertebrates and is not difficult to cultivate.

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Yersinia pestis, a bacterium that causes bubonic plague and pseudotuberculosis, is a significant pathogen. It is transmitted by fleas that breed in rodent reservoirs. The pathogen emerged from an enteric ancestor around 6000 years ago and has complex virulence determinants. The Yersinia outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a crucial role in subverting the human immune system and allowing unrestricted bacterial replication in the lungs and lymph nodes.

Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium that causes plague and pneumonic plague. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an Oriental rat flea. The organism produces an inflammatory disease that manifests in an inflamed lymph node, a severe respiratory tract infection and a high fever. Treatment involves antibiotics, including gentamicin, streptomycin, and fluoroquinolones.

Genetic analyses have revealed that the two species share a significant DNA homology. Both species produce bubonic plague, a fatal disease caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis is the same but rarely fatal. The genomes of the two bacteria are closely related, with the 16S rRNA sequences identical.

In humans, Y. enterocolitis, a foodborne pathogen, can cause yersiniosis. It causes a fever and abdominal pain, and mesenteric lymphadenitis. The bacterium also causes reactive arthritis and pharyngitis.